Yalta (ukr. Ялта, tat. Yalta,) - a town in the Ukraine in the south of the Crimean peninsula on the Black Sea. Has 80 thousand. residents. From Yalta to Simferopol Europe leads the longest trolleybus line length of about 86 km. Yalta is a popular resort. In Yalta are Chekhov Museum, the Cathedral of St. John Chrysostom (orator Chrysostom), the Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception, the Yalta State Museum of History and Literature, National Museum of Decorative Arts, "Glade of Tales". On the outskirts of Yalta are two tsarist palaces in Livadia and Massandra.
Yalta was founded probably in the first century A.D. by the Greeks. According to legend, the Greek sailors during a storm and wandered a long time to wander in search of the shore. When I finally saw the shore (jalos), it decided that it assumed the name of the village. And according to historians today Yalta was inhabited by people from the tribe Tauric (lac, Tauri) in the sediment Tauri, which was near the former village Chehovo in I century A.D. Archaeologists have discovered the city with the times and the Stone and Bronze Ages. In the old part on the outskirts of Yalta, on a hillside found the cemeteries Tauri, ancient inhabitants of the south coast. Tauric lived in the Crimea during the X-IX century B.C. to III century A.D., the scripts of Greek authors this tribe has a bad reputation of cruel pirates, who not only rob travelers and shipwrecked, but devote their goddess virgin Virgo (Iphigenia).
The oldest monuments associated with Tauric from the turn of the second and first millennium BC Later mentions of them in the written sources. About Tauric wrote Herodotus, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Tacitus and Ammianus Marcellinus. Ancient writers Tauric had a negative opinion, believing them to be barbarians). But for the Tauri piracy was not the basis for the economy, but "extra trade." They led a life based on animal husbandry and farming, hunting, fishing, dolphin hunting and gathering sea molluscs. No doubt the history of the Tauric settlements, where Yalta was founded, is related to the history of the Crimea (Tauris).
The ancient city was part of the Roman Empire, in the medieval period from the eighth to the twelfth century - the Byzantine Empire. In the Middle Ages there was a large settlement Dzhalita (Jalita). Yalta (Jalita) can be found in the description of the coast of Crimea at the beginning ХII century (1145). In the XIII century, the Venetians and then Genoese penetrated the southern coast. The documents and maps ХIV century Yalta called Kalita, Calita, Gialita and Etalita. Since the beginning of the XV century Yalta together with other lands of the south coast were covered in a feudal duchy Feodoro, inhabited by Christians. Then the Crimea belonged to Genoa, and then again to Feodoro to 1475. From 1475 to 1774 Yalta was incorporated into the province belonging to the Turkish sultan. After this period has been included in Crimea to Russia (1783), the lands of present-day Yalta were put big landowners "in the lemon groves, orange and olive trees." The settlement started to grow slowly, but its development greatly hindered by lack of roads. In 1823, Mikhail S. Vorontsov was appointed governor general of New Russia, which includes the Crimean Peninsula.
In Alupka next the Vorontsov Palace are beautiful park, was established artificially imposed ground on the rocky mountain slope Ay-Petry, in which there are many notable trees and shrubs: palm trees, yews, cypresses, oleanders, magnolias, wisteria and roses. On the surface of 40 ha grows 200 species of trees and shrubs. The road passing through the park is divided into two parts: the upper (in the English style) and the lower (French style). Inside the park there are beautiful glades, ponds and lakes, rivers with cascading waterfalls. The palace is built in the years 1828-1846 in three styles - English late Gothic and Baroque with its beautiful Moorish portal. The interiors of the palace hidden paintings and sculptures of Western and Russian authors from the XVIII and XIX century. Enterprising imperial dignitary as a prominent landowner, founded the company in the wine in Alupca and Massandra (famous for its vineyards and wine). The great contribution to the development and dissemination of sub-viticultural ornamental and fruit trees on the south coast had Nikitsky Botanical Garden (280 ha and 28 thousand plant). It was founded in 1812. Its founder and first director was Russian botanist Christian Steven of Swedish descent. Is oldest botanical gardens. Among the more exotic are the palms, bamboo, cork trees, Himalayan cedars, giant redwoods, cypress, thuja, pine, eucalyptus, pine Mexican, yucca, bananas, bay trees. Particularly impressive: Palm Avenue, a Mexican hill with cactus, cascade pools with aquatic vegetation.
In 1834 the Polish magnate Leo Potocki built a palace and park at Livadia. In the twenties of the nineteenth century, the highway connects Yalta with Simferopol, in the thirties with Sevastopol. In 1838, Yalta became a city and a new Yalta became the administrative area. But until the 60s the entire western part of the Yalta deals with vineyards and tobacco plantations. Yalta began in the '70s, especially after the construction of railways Lozovaia-Sevastopol in 1873. The healing properties of Yalta and the surrounding area have been strongly promoted by doctors Botkin and Dmitriyeva. Professor Sergei Botkin was the first to express the idea that Yalta and the entire South Coast - are the best place in terms of climate in Russia for people who suffer from tuberculosis. His advice Romanov royal family bought Livadia (for you) in 1860 after the death of Potocki. Tsar Alexander II expanded the palace and park. Livadia Palace was the favorite place for summer recreation tsars. He died here in 1894 by Tsar Alexander III Romanov. This gave impetus to the rapid development of Yalta. To be closer to the Czar here aristocracy began building palaces and houses. After this, the entrepreneurial bourgeoisie began to build hotels and houses for wealthy people. Yalta is also present in Adam Mickiewicz's Crimean Sonnets, who lived there and worked for some time.
In 1910, the host of Livadia was Tsar Nicholas II. In place of the old palace erected in 1911, the summer residence of the Tsar, so. Great (or White) Palace, which still exists today. In 1912 built impressively situated on 40 m rock, neo-Gothic palace was originally constructed, the original name of "Castle of Love", in 1914 opened a restaurant here, "Swallow's nest" - is the architectural symbol of the Crimea. The establishment of Soviet power in the Crimea (1920) favored the development of the city. Began to organize the network resorts. Sanatoriums began to operate on the basis of nationalized hotels, guest houses and homes. 18 spas with rooms for 2400 people were already in operation in the resort area in Yalta in the summer of 1921. In 1925, the first sanatorium for peasants was opened in the old Tsar in Palace at Livadia. A foot-Mountain Medved (Bear-mountain), Aju-Dag first pitched tents in the camp of the pioneers of "Artec". Soon began the construction of new resorts. In 1928, forest-mountain Yalta began to operate in the sanatorium "Dolossy". In 1941 the Crimea was occupied by Nazi Germany, which was interrupted by the expansion of the resort. On April 16, 1944 Yalta was liberated by the Soviet Army.
During the Second World War, in Yalta (in the palace at Livadia) Yalta conference was held agreeing at more than 40 years of political division of postwar Europe. The Yalta Conference (4 to 11 February 1945), also known as Crimea - meeting the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition (called the Big Three): Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President USA Franklin Delano Roosevelt. This was one of the big three conferences took place at the Tehran Conference (November-December 1943) and before the Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945). The big three held many a conference, but at the conferences Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam were decided utmost importance. Held at the Potocki Palace in Livadia lying in Yalta in the Crimea. Was crucial for the shape of postwar Europe. In Yalta, are known "IM Sechenov," Research Institute of Physical Methods of Treatment and Medical Climatology and "Magarach" Institute of viticulture and wine production.
In 1961 trolleybus he started regular ride between Symferopol and Yalta. Trolleybus route was also opened in the city. If you come to Yalta for sure you will hear the expression "Bolshaya Yalta" ("Big Yalta"). It no mistakes - Bolshaya Yalta is a significant part of the southern coast of Crimea, about 70 km long. It stretches from the village of Foros in the west to the east Krasnokamenka. Yalta is the administrative center and the central resort on the coast. In the territory of Bolshaya Yalta there are various companies such as wine, tobacco, horticulture. Wine from Massandry, with their strain of vines enjoys a worldwide reputation. In recent years, have been built in Yalta, many new apartment blocks and convalescent homes, has been done great work in the development of the city.